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Exam Three Review
Please keep in mind that the following is just a rough guide and that you should study your notes very carefully and re-read the readings as part of your preparation.
Global Inequalities - why the rich are rich and stay rich, why the poor are poor and stay poor, and why the gap keeps growing
Global Inequalities - why the rich are rich and stay rich, why the poor are poor and stay poor, and why the gap keeps growing
| Uncentralized || Centralized|
|"bands" and "tribes"||"chiefdoms" and "states"|
|small population||large population|
Uncentralized: Bands and Tribes- Kin based groups, "Egalitarian" (equal) or "Big Man" leadership, Informal conflict resolution, often little to no food production, no labor specialization, reciprocal exchanges, no stratification
Band: A small kin-based group with political independence
Tribe: Larger than a band- includes political integration through a common language, ancestry, culture, territory, or some other unifying characteristic
Centralized: Chiefdoms and States- Heavy emphasis on class and rank, centralized decision making and conflict resolution, bureaucracy (may not always occur in Chiefdoms), Intensive food production, Labor specialization, Stratification, Formal conflict resolution, Power, Large Population, redistribution/market, agriculture/industry.
Chiefdom: Multiple groups organized under single chief
State*: Large group of people with many classes, formal, law-making government
*State should not be confused with "Nation", or a group of people who have a common territory, history, culture, etc. 200 states, 5,000 nations in the world
Soft Power: - shaping minds, based upon 'respect' (co-optive) dangle "carrots" to encourage cooperation
- soft power is the more powerful form of power (Ex: education, media, consumerism, defining "cool")
- power and inequality embedded in (and produced by) economic, social, political,and ideological structures (think of it as a structure of power)
Gandhi born in 1869
- When he was younger he stole money for cigarettes and after doing so, something finally got to him, he admitted to his father. His father did not punish him, but this was the 'ahhh' moment for Gandi that sparked the empathy & love. When he was 17 he became a lawyer. During his first trial he froze. He left for South Africa because he was so embarrassed. He bought first class tickets and learned that this was something only the British could do and was moved.He had to sleep in the train station and this is when "Mahatma" is born.
- Gandhi believed in fighting without violence. He taught people to refuse to copperate with discrimination. Gandhi preached to not accept the British's power and therefore take the power away from them.
- Peaceful, non-violent, non-cooperation
- Constantly undermining power
- known for his use of soft power (ruled roughly 1/6th of all humanity)
- Satyagrahani- seeking truth through non-violence.
- one is able to reveal the truth to their oppressor by not fighting back. Not fighting back shows the world (including the oppressor themself) the brutality of the oppressor, and thus diminishes their soft power.
- He believed that power is not held by the 'powerful' but by those who are being overpowered.
- Gandhi calls for a nationwide strike. The British respond by killing Indians who stand and die without fighting back in a closed stadium. In effect, the British used hard power, but lost all soft power. In the process, Gandhi builds up his soft power.
- 1930 Salt March - making a point by marching to their beach against British wishes to make salt. This was to prove that the British did not control him. (Gandhi was thrown in jail for this but it actually benefitted him because he was able to accrue soft power by demonstrating the brutality of the British)
- Gandhi went on a hunger strike to stop violence after he felt he failed to teach his people to love and respect everybody, but was eventually shot and killed by Hindu extremists who wanted violence to continue.
Political Jiu - Jitsu - use the strength of the oppressor against them.
Cheyenne Tribes - have been turned into what we see today politically (president, vice president, etc. instead of Sweet Medicine Man.
The video demonstrating uncentralized politics: The Gods Must Be Crazy illustrates the lack of laws, police, and most importantly, crime.
Cheyenne Warrior culture declines:
- some sit around and drink Lysol and get drunk
- others dance and try to develop their culture again
-Food for thought-Even though we have a huge population..could we develop new ways of relating and connecting? New democracy? vote on issues otherwise and not president?
Political organizations vary dependently on the culture itself. I.E, what works perfectly in one culture may be an absolute disaster in another.
Democracy in PNG
- as shown in 2002, democracy does not work in PNG!
| Witchcraft || Law|
|Focus on Relationship||Focus on Act|
|Find Relationship problem||Establish Individual Guilt|
|Heal relationship/seek social harmony||Force criminal pay debt to society|
*Law against witchcraft/Sorcery---law maker require to apprehend person and take them to court for a witchcraft trial
Nekalimin Political Organization:
-"Great Man"==no power, just influence
-Seek agreement and consensus
-individual opinions are not valued
Flash Mob- Usually about 100 people. It is when people come together and organize something. (this is now becoming easier due to media: facebook, myspace, text message, etc)
Belarus Flashmob (last unfree country in eastern Europe)
-Because the Authoritarian government created a law that made it illegal for groups to organize in public, the ice-cream flashmob resulted in people being taken away by the KGB
Democracy barrel model-
---Individualism & Self-Expression.
---Social Mobility, Nuclear Form, and Love Marriage
---Market Economy and Industrailism
(Individuals make their own decisions, have their own opinions and vote)
What impact does the "Medium" have on political organization?
Paper Vs. Face-to Face
Paper presented complex problems. It is more impersonal and easier to punish someone based on written laws rather than assessing the situation in a more personal manner
TV and media shape our politics (like commercials, cell phones, facebook)). Some think this first came about during Nixon vs. Kennedy. Kennedy came off well on camera which could have promoted towards him winning.
Our news are short sensational messages which are interesting in itself.
Know the “Main Point” from lecture
- Religion expresses, reflects, explains, and legitimizes cultural practices, values, and the socio-political order.
Religion vs. Spirituality
Religion is an organized and usually collective system of beliefs regarding the supernatural
Spirituality is more individual and does not need a particular system or organization
Types of Religion
Polytheism- Many Gods and Goddesses
Pantheon- The collective body of Gods and Goddesses of polytheists
Animism- Nature itself contains distinct spirits within the bodies, but separable from them
Animatism- Nature has a certain "energy" or "mana" that enlivens it, but is not distinguishable from it
(Foragers/Horticulture) Animism- spirits are seen throughout the environment, and one should build relationships with them. (here, Professor Wesch mentioned the story of Buddah and the Mustard seed to illustrate a connection between people- in that they all share similar experiences)
(Agriculture) Indra story- Many indras before.. social regulation of those getting a big head, the inexplicable importance of the number 432 with regard to cycle in many cultures (432,000 Brautma Lives) (60 sec. x 60 min. x 12 hrs = 43,200 = 1 cycle before we start the time set over again).
(Hunting) Story of Blackfoot Buffalo Dance- Respect between man and nature...
Mayan Religion- Majority of Mayans have given this up, but a growing number of Americans have begun practicing.
New Age Spirituality- Whole sections in many book stores are devoted to this.
- Individually driven - (individual selects own beliefs from many world religions)
- Main idea - all is one, and all is spiritual
- emerged in late 1960's, early 1970's
- 20% of Americans- (This inlcudes astrology, etc)
Pantheism- The belief that the universe and all within it is God
Ex. Story of a man who changed his name is God..and his cat..and his tv...etc
"Minorityism"- Rule by (or in favor of) minority
"The Tyranny of the Majority"-idea first stated by John Stewert Mills
The Matrix and World Religions- the film incorporates many major religions in some way or another. Very symbolic. For example: Neo, the "chosen one" (Many religious views hold a "chosen one") to fix a "problem" in the world by self-sacrifice (story of Christ in Christianity). He comes to find out there are many Neos before him, and many to come after him (The HIndu story of Indra).
The Matrix is a modern myth to synthesize Christianity, HInduism and Buddhism.
A change in culture=a change in religion
--Religion within the US is changing...there is more fundamental growth. Mega Churches are popping up (12,000-20,000 people churches. It is comparable to a rock concert in that members feel a stronger sense of connection and a more unique feeling in such a setting, and feel that the experience brings them to a closer connection with God). Small town churches, however, are still the most common.
What role should religion play in pluralistic society?
- 76.5% Christian (claim that they are Christian in the US)
- 33% go to church
- 40% can name more than 4 of 10 commandments
- 50% can name 1 of the gospels
- 60% believe that the bible is true (far fewer actually know what it says)
- 75% believe that God helps those who help themselves (NOT actually in the Bible)
At some core level all religions are the same.. Such as "The Hero with a Thousand Faces" by Joseph Campbell. --All have heros (Jesus, Budda, etc) and all face similar life difficulties (we are all born totally dependent)
Know the “Main Points” from lecture
- art is Life
- art provides meaning to life
- art expresses identity
- art connects us...
- art is everywhere all around us.
- seeking the meaning of another culture's art and symbols
- requires rich body of ethnographic knowledge
_Art is NOT just what you hang on the walls as Americans sometimes portray it.
-The things that we cant talk about are the ones that are the most inspirational.
-People shape their identity by ART (identity by music, how they dress, how they wear their hair, etc.) which connects us (art is not always about separating yourself from other people)
-Mass culture is dying-not many know the number one song and that is shaped by medium where you get music (iTunes is way more individualist than the radio.)
Inuit Song Dueling- Cultural. For example, two men love one girl, so they fight over her by making songs about the other, in attempt to rouse some anger or emotions.
Detroit Rap Battles- Almost replaces physical fighting with a battle of quick quips and genius thought. Eminem for example. The crowds reactions usually judge who wins the "battle" All the words are aimed directly at the opponent, and there is a time limit.
Tuvan Throat Singing- first example in class where the sound was produced by a single voice
without a synthesizer
Aborigine Songlines- Taking alot of a popular rock band in America. Made a political video saying all 4th world or indigenous people should stand up for their rights.
Navajo Sandpaintings- very sacred, does not last long, destroyed purposely after as little as 12 hours. Used for healing.
Joik- Individuals unique song, can be given at birth, or given to a lover. Very strong and emotional, no words.
Syncretism - merging separate traditions together.
Which of the following forms of political organization would feature leaders with real “power” and authority rather than less formalized “influence”?
e. All political organizations feature leaders with real power and authority
What does the Buddhist story of the mustard seed illustrate?
a. That everybody experiences the death of loved ones.
b. That we all need to eat mustard seeds.
c. That all Buddhists believe in plant spirits.
d. That enlightenment requires hallucinogens such as mustard seeds.
e. That Buddhism is very similar to Christianity.
Which of the following forms of political organization would you expect to find in a pluralistic society practicing intensive agriculture?
e. none of the above
answers 1. a 2. a 3. c
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